Thématique: Writing and communicating
Guides for preparing your bibliography
The art of having a style
  • Prepare a bibliography using the appropriate citation style
Look at the bibliography below and decide whether the statements that follow it are true or false. (Select all that apply)

Valadier, P. (2001). La mondialisation et les cultures. Études, Tome 395(11), 505-515.
Chaubet, F. (2013). La mondialisation culturelle. Paris: Presses universitaires de France.
Vinsonneau, G. (2012). Mondialisation et identité culturelle. Bruxelles: De Boeck.

The reference list uses the author-date format.
The references appear in the correct order.
All of the references follow the same citation style guide.
Jules prepared the following bibliography for his research paper:

1. Arnaud M. « Les TIC, alternatives à la mondialisation ». Hermès, La Revue. 2004;3(40):140 5.
2. Valadier P. La mondialisation et les cultures. Études. 2001;395(11):505-15.
3. Warnier J-P. La mondialisation de la culture. Paris: La Découverte; 2008. 128 p.

What can you tell by looking at it? (Select all that apply)
Jules used the numeric format for his references.
Jules used the same citation style for all his references.
Jules should have included the first names of the authors if he knew them.
Jules cites different types of documents.
Of the following four references, which contain all the minimum required elements? (Select all that apply)
Rocher, G. (2000). Hégémonie, fragmentation et mondialisation de la culture. Horizons philosophiques, 11(1).
Rocher, G. (2000). Hégémonie, fragmentation et mondialisation de la culture. Horizons philosophiques, 11(1), 125-134.
ROCHER, G. (2000). Hégémonie, fragmentation et mondialisation de la culture.
1. Rocher, G. Hégémonie, fragmentation et mondialisation de la culture. Horizons philosophiques 11(1), 125–134 (2000).
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Anna had the right idea. To make sure you’re using the right citation style for your bibliography, feel free to ask a librarian or a teacher.

There are thousands of different styles for preparing a bibliography. Ask your professors if there is a particular one that they would like for you to use. The styles vary in the order of the elements, the elements required and the punctuation used. Whichever style you choose, you must apply it systematically throughout your paper.

In order to cite your sources in any academic paper, there are two complementary elements that you need to include:

  • The in-text references, which you insert into the body of the document in a shortened form after each quotation or paraphrase.
  • The bibliography, which appears at the end of the document (after the conclusion but before the annexes). It contains the full references for all the sources that you cited in a shortened form in the text. These references should allow your sources to be unambiguously identified and found by someone else.

bibliography sample

SIROIS, Fuschia M., EERDE, Wendelien van and ARGIROPOULOU, Maria Ioanna, 2015. Is procrastination related to sleep quality? Testing an application of the procrastination–health model. Cogent Psychology. 2015. Vol. 2, n° 1, pp. 1074776. DOI 10.1080/23311908.2015.1074776.

For your short-form in-text references, you can choose one of two options:

  • The author-date format: The author’s name and the year of publication appear in parentheses directly after a quotation or paraphrase. Some style guides recommend including the page number of the source document where the quotation appears.
  • The numeric format: After each quotation or paraphrase, a number appears that corresponds to an entry in the bibliography at the end of the paper.

To save time, you can use reference management software.